DOMS – what is DOMS? (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness)
DOMS is a common result of intense physical activity that stresses the muscle beyond what it is accustomed to. Eccentric contractions are more likely to cause DOMS because eccentric loading puts a higher demand on your muscles compared to a concentric contraction of the muscle, and with these higher loads/demands the muscles suffer microtrauma.
DOMS is thought to be microtrauma in muscle and connective tissue and causes inflammation and subsequent pain. Anyone can get DOMS and is more pronounced when a new training activity or increased training load (volume or intensity) is introduced. DOMS is not a bad thing, it is really a sign of your body trying to make adaptions in an attempt to better prepare your body to do the same activity again.
Symptoms of DOMS can be discomfort in muscles experienced 6-72 hours post-exercise and peaks around 24-48 hours post-exercise. The pain is usually bilateral. Other symptoms may include localised swelling, tenderness on palpation, a temporary reduction in strength and temporary reduction in joint range of motion (both inhibited by muscle pain).
Allowing the muscle to adapt to new stress slowly could help minimise the onset of DOMS, however, there is no way it can be avoided altogether and it is a fairly normal response to intense exercise. There is no definitive treatment for DOMS, however some ways to minimise the severity of symptoms may include, ice baths post workout, gentle stretching, light massage, low dose of ibuprofen, and gentle cardio exercise.